The Diplomatic System of the EU

Carta, C. (2012) The European Union Diplomatic Service: Ideas, Preferences and Identities, London, Routledge, 2012.

Duke, S. (2009) ‘Providing for European-Level Diplomacy after Lisbon: The Case of the European External Action Service’, The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, 4: 211-33.

Duke S., Pomorska K. and Vanhoonacker S. (2012), ‘The EU’s diplomatic architecture: the mid-term challenge’, DSEU Policy Paper 10.

Emerson, M. et al.(2011) Upgrading the EU’s Role as Global Actor: Institutions, Law and the Restructuring of European Diplomacy, Brussels, CEPS.

Hocking, B. & J. Bátora (2009) “Diplomacy and the European Union”, The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 113-259.

Mahncke, D. & S. Gstöhl (eds.), (2012) European Union Diplomacy: Coherence, Unity and Effectiveness, Cahiers du Collège d’Europe/College of Europe Studies, Vol. 15, Bruxelles, Bern, Berlin, Frankfurt am Main, New York, Oxford, Wien.

Petrov, P., Pomorska, K. & Vanhoonacker, S. (eds.), “Special Issue: The Emerging EU Diplomatic System: Opportunities and Challenges after ‘Lisbon’”, The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2012, pp. 1-134.

Smith, M., Keeukeleire, S. and Vanhoonaker, S. (eds) The Diplomatic System of the European Union (London, Routledge, 2105).


European External Action Service (EEAS)

Balfour, R., Carta, C. & Raik, K. (eds) (2015)The European External Action Service and National Foreign Ministries: Convergence or Divergence?, London, Ashgate.

Balfour & Ojanen (2011), “Does the EEAS represent a model for the challenges of global diplomacy?”, IAI Working Paper 11, June 2011.

Balfour, R and Raik, K. (2013), The EEAS and National Diplomacies, EPC Issue paper 73.

Balfour, R., A. Bailes & M. Kenna (2012), “The European External Action Service at work: how to improve EU foreign policy”, EPC Issue Paper.

Blockmans, S.(2012) “The European External Action Service one year on: first signs of strengths and weaknesses”, CLEER Working Paper, 2012.

Burke (ed.) (2012), Europe’s External Action Service: ten steps towards a credible EU foreign policy, Centre for European Reform.

Duke, Simon, ‘The European External Action Service: Antidote against Incoherence?’, European Foreign Affairs Review, vol. 17, issue 1, 2012, pp. 45-68.

Bart Van Vooren, “A Legal Institutional Perspective on the European External,Action Service”, Common Market Law Review 48, no.2 (2011): 475-502.

Duke, S. (2014), ‘Reflections on the EEAS Review’, European Foreign Affairs Review, 19(1): 23-44.

Erkelens, L. and Blockmans, S. (2012), ‘Setting up the European External Action Service: an act of institutional balance’, European Constitutional Law Review, 8(2): 246-79..

Furness Mark (2013), ‘Who controls the EEAS? Agent autonomy in EU external policy’, European Foreign Affairs Review, 18(1): 103-25.

European Commission (2012), ‘Working arrangements between Commission services and the European External Action Service in relation to external relations issues’, SEC(2013)48, January 2012

European Council (2010), ‘Council Decision of 26 July 2010’, Establishing the organization and functioning of the European External Action Service, (2010/427/EU).

European External Action Service (2013), “EEAS Review”, July 2013.

Helwig, N., P. Ivan & H. Kostanyan (2013) The New EU Foreign Policy Architecture: Reviewing the First Two Years of the EEAS, Brussels, Centre for European Policy Studies.

Henokl Thomas (2013), “The EEAS-Torn apart between several principals or acting as a smart double-agent? A principal-agent analysis of EU Delegations”, 7th ECPR general conference, IEP Bordeaux, September 2013.

Kluth, Michael  and Pilegaard, Jess (2012) “The Making of the EU’s External Action Service: A Neorealist Explanation”, European Foreign AffairsReview 17(2): 303-322.

Murdoch, Zuzana, ‘Negotiating the European External Action Service (EEEAS): Analysing the External Effects of Internal (Dis) Agreement’, Journal of Common Market Studies, vol. 50, no. 6, 2012, pp. 1011-

Reviewing Member States’ Commitment to the European External Action Service, EPIN Working Paper, No.34, November 2012.

Smith,Michael, E. (2013)“The European External Action Service and the security-development nexus: organizing for effectiveness or incoherence?”, Journal of European PublicPolicy 20(9): 1299-1315.

Spence, David, ‘The Early Days of the European External Action Service: A Practitioner’s View’, The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, no. 7, 2012, pp. 115-134.

Vanhoonacker Sophie and Natasja Reslow, Natasja (2010) “The European External Action Service:Living Forwards by understanding backwards”, European Foreign Affairs Review 15(1):1-18.

Vanhoonacker Sophie & Pomorska Karolina (2013), The EEAS and agenda-setting in European foreign policy, , Journal of European Public Policy, 20:9, 2013

Wouters, J. and Duquet (2011), “The EU, EEAS and Union Delegations and International Diplomatic Law: New Horizons”, Leuven Centre for Global Governance Studies, Working paper 62, May 2011.

Wessel Ramses & Van Vooren, Bart (2013), “The EEAS’s diplomatic dreams and the reality of European and International Law”, Journal of Public Policy, 20(9):1350-67.


EU Delegations (EUDELs)

Austermann, F. (2014) European Union Delegations in EU Foreign Policy: A Diplomatic Service of Different Speeds (Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan).

Austermann Franke (2012), “Towards embassies for Europe? EU Delegations in the Union’s diplomatic system”, Policy paper 8, January 2012

Comelli and Matarazzo (2011), “Rehashed Commission Delegations or Real Embassies? EU Delegations post- Lisbon”, IAI working papers 11/23, July 2011.

Drieskens, E. (2012)’What’s in a Name? Challenges to the Creation of EU Delegations’, The Hague of Diplomacy, vol. 7, no 1, pp. 51-64.

Duke, Pomorska, Vanhoonacker (2012), “The EU’s diplomatic architecture: the mid-term challenge”, DSEU Policy Paper 10.

European Commission (2012), “Working arrangements between Commission services and the European External Action Service (EEAS) in relation to external relations issues”, SEC(2013)48, January 2012.

European Council (2008), “Presidency Conclusions Brussels European Council 14 December 2007”, 16616/1/07, 14 February 2008.

Helly, D., Herrero, A., Knoll, A., Galeazzi, G. and Sherriff, A. (2014) “A closer look into EU’s external frontline: Framing the Challenges Ahead for EU Delegations”, European Centre for Development Policy Management, Briefing Note No 62, March 2014.

Helly Damien et al. (2014), “A closer look into EU’s external frontline”, ECDPM, No62, March 2014

Maurer, H. and Raik, K. (2014) “Pioneers of a European diplomatic system. EU Delegations in Moscow and Washington”, Finnish Institute of International Affairs, FIIA Analysis-1, May 2014


The EU High Representative, Special and National Representatives

Adebahr, C. (2009) Learning and Change in European Foreign Policy: The Case of the EU Special Representatives, Baden-Baden, Nomos.

Bardi, L. and Pizzimenti, E. (2013) ‘Old Logics for New Games: The appointment of the EU’s High representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy’, Contemporary Italian Politics, vol. 5. No 1, April, pp. 55-70.

Grevi, G. (2007) “Pioneering foreign policy: the EU Special Representatives”, EUISS Chaillot Papers, No. 106, 2007.

Helwig, N. and Ruger, C (2014), ‘In search of a Role for the High representative: The Legacy of Catherine Ashton’, The International Spectator, vol. 49, no 4, pp. 1-17.

Jonas, Paul, ‘EU Foreign Policy After Lisbon: Will the New High Representative and the External Action Service Make a Difference?’, CAP Policy Analysis, no. 2., 2008, pp. 3-45.

Juncos, A. and Pomorska, K. (2011), ‘Invisble and Unaccountable? National Representatives and Council Officials in EU Foreign Policy’, Journal of European Public Policy, vol. 18, no 8, pp. 1096-1114.

Müller-Brandeck-Bocquet, G. & C. Rüger (eds.) (2012) The High Representative for the EU Foreign and Security Policy: Review and Prospects, Baden-Baden, Nomos.

Vanhoonacker, S., H. Dijkstra & H. Maurer (eds.) (2010), “Understanding the Role of Bureaucracy in the European Security and Defence Policy”, European Integration Online Papers, Special Issue, Vol 14, No. 1.

Biscop, S. (2009) ‘Odd Couple or Dynamic Duo? The EU and Strategy in Times of Crisis’, European Foreign Affairs Review, 14:3, pp. 367-84.

Biscop, S. (ed.) (2009) The Value of Power, the Power of Values: A Call for an EU Grand Strategy, Egmont Paper 33, October (Brussels: Academia Press).

Bretherton, C. and J. Vogler (2006) The European Union as a Global Actor, 2nd edn. (London: Routledge).

Caporaso, J. A. (1992) ‘International Relations Theory and Multilateralism: The Search for Foundations’, in J. G. Ruggie (ed.) Multilateralism Matters: The Theory and Practice of an Institutional Form (New York: Columbia University Press).

Chevallard, G. (2005) ‘UN Reform: A Test of European Leadership’, The International Spectator, 40:4, pp. 19-29.

Eeckhout, P. (2004) External Relations of the European Union: Legal and Constitutional Foundations (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Elgström, O. and M. Smith (eds.) (2006) The European Union’s Roles in International Politics. Concepts and Analysis (London and New York: Routledge).

Elgström, O. and M. Smith (2000) ‘Introduction: Negotiation and policy-making in the European Union – processes, system and order’, Journal of European Public Policy, 7:5, pp. 673-83.

European Commission (2005) The 2005 UN Summit – Addressing the Global Challenges and Making a Success of the Reformed UN, COM (2005) 259 final, 15 June.

European Commission (2004) A World Player. The European Union’s External Relations. Brussels, DG Press and Communication.


The EU in IOs

Antoniadis, A. (2004) ‘The Participation of the European Community in the World Trade Organization: an External Look at European constitution-building’, in T. Tridimas and P. Nebbia (eds.) European Union Law for the Twenty-First Century: Rethinking the New Legal Order, Vol. 1,Oxford, Hart Publishing: 321-44.

Blavoukos, S. and Bourantonis, D. (2011)The EU Presence in International Organizations (London: Routledge).

Blavoukos, S. and Bourantonis, D. (2013) ‘Struggling with Performance: An Analytical Framework for the EU International Interactions’, Paper prepared for the EUSA Thirteenth Biennial Conference Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

De Burca, G. and J. Scott (2001) The EU and the WTO: Legal and Constitutional Issues (Oxford: Hart Publishing).

Delreux, T. (2014) ‘EU actorness, cohesiveness and effectiveness in environmental affairs’, Journal of European Public Policy21(7): 1017-1032.

Elsig, M. (2013) ‘The EU as an effective trade power: Strategic choice of judicial candidates in the context of the World Trade Organization’, International Relations 27(3): 325-40.

Gehring, T., Oberthür, S. and Mühleck, M. (2013) ‘European Union actorness in international institutions: why the EU is recognized as an actor in some international institutions, but not in others’, Journal of Common Market Studies 51(5): 849–65.

Govaere, I., J. Capiau and An Vermeersch (2004) ‘In-Between Seats: The Participation of the European Union in International Organizations’, European Foreign Affairs Review, 9, pp. 155-87.

Groen, L. and Niemann, A. (2013) ‘The European Union at the Copenhagen climate negotiations: A case of contested EU actorness and effectiveness’, International Relations 27(3): 308-324.

Gstöhl. S. (2009) ‘Patchwork Power Europe: The European Union’s Presentation in International Institutions’, European Foreign Affairs Review, 14(3): 385-403.

Jørgensen, K. E. (2009) ‘The European Union and International Organizations: A Framework for Analysis’, in K. E. Jørgensen (ed.) EU and International Organizations (London: Routledge).

Jørgensen, K.E., Oberthür, S. and Shahin, J. (2011) ‘Introduction: assessing the EU’s performance in international institutions – conceptual framework and core findings’, Journal of European Integration 33(6): 599–620

Jørgensen, K. E. (ed.) (2009) EU and International Organizations (London: Routledge).

Macaj, G. and Nicolaïdis, K. (2014) ‘Beyond ‘one voice’? Global Europe’s engagement with its own diversity’, Journal of European Public Policy 21(7): 1067–1083.

Meunier, S. (2000) ‘What single voice? European institutions and EU–US trade negotiations’, International Organization 54(1): 103–35

Meunier, S. (2005) Trading Voices: The European Union in International Commercial Negotiations (Princeton: Princeton University Press).

Meunier, S. and Nicolaïdis, K. (2006) ‘The European Union as a Conflicted Trade Power’, Journal of European Public Policy, 13:6, pp. 906-25.

Orsini, A. (ed.), The European Union with(in) International Organisations Commitment, Consistency and Effects across Time (London: Ashgate, 2014).

Sbragia, A. M. (1998) ‘Institution-Building from Below and Above: The European Community in Global Environmental Politics’ in W. Sandholtz and A. Stone Sweet (eds.) European Integration and Supranational Governance (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 283-301.

Schmitt, B. (2005) ‘Effective Non-Proliferation: The European Union and the 2005 NPT Review Conference’, Chaillot Paper 77(Paris: EU Institute for Security Studies

Smaghi, L. B. (2004) ‘A Single EU Seat in the IMF?’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 42:2, pp. 229-48.

Smith, K. (2004) European Union Foreign Policy in a Changing World (Cambridge: Polity).

van Schaik, L. (2013) EU Effectiveness and Unity in Multilateral Negotiations: More than the Sum of its Parts?, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Vogler, J. (2005) ‘The European Union’s Contribution to Global Environmental Governance’, International Affairs, 81:4, pp. 835-850.

Woolcock, S. (1993) ‘The European Acquis and Multilateral Trade Rules: Are They Compatible?’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 31:4, pp. 539-58.

Young, A. (2007) ‘Trade Politics Ain’t What it Used to Be: The European Union in the Doha Round’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 45:4, pp. 789-811.

Young, A. (2002) Extending European Cooperation: The EU and the ‘New’ International Trade Agenda (Manchester: Manchester University Press).


The EU at the UN

Basu, S., Schunz, S., Bruyninckx H. and Wouters. J. (2012) ‘The European Union’s Participation in United Nations Human Rights and Environmental Governance: Key Concepts and Major Challenges’, in Wouters, J., Bruyninckx, H., Basu, S. and Schunz, S. The European and Multilateral Governance: Assessing EU Participation in United Nations Human Rights and Environmental Fora, New York, Palgrave: 3-24.

Birnberg, G. (2009) ‘The Voting Behaviour of the European Union Member States in the United Nations General Assembly’, PhD dissertation submitted to the Department of Government of the London School of Economics.

Blavoukos, S. and Bourantonis, D. (2016)The EU’s Visibility and Coherence at the UN General Assembly’, Global   Affairs, 2(1): . 35-45

Blavoukos, S. and Bourantonis, D. (2016)The EU in UN Politics (London: Palgrave/Macmillan, 2016)

Blavoukos, S. and Bourantonis, D. and C. Portella (eds.) (2016)The EU and the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (London: Palgrave, 2014) .

Blavoukos, S. and Bourantonis, D  (2015) The EU in the UN General Assembly: Introduction and Literature Review’, International and European Politics, Vol 33, Jan-Feb : 63-70 (in Greek).

Blavoukos, S. and Bourantonis, D  (2014) ‘Do EU Sanctions Strengthen the International Presence of the EU?’, European Foreign Affairs Review, 19(3):  393-409.

Blavoukos, S. and Bourantonis, D.  (2011) ‘The EU in the United Nations Security Council: the Case of the UNSC Reform’, Journal of European Integration, 33 (6):  731-742.

Blavoukos, S. and Bourantonis, D. (2002) ‘EU Representation in the UN Security Council: Bridging the ‘Capabilities-Expectations’ Gap?’, unpublished working paper, University of Essex.

Cosgrove, C.A. and Twitchett, K.J. (eds.) (1970) The New International Actors: The U.N. and the E.E.C., Bristol, MacMillan.

Drieskens, E. (2008) ‘EU Actorness at the UN Security Council: A Principal-Agent Comparison of the Legal Situation before and after Lisbon’, European Journal of Law Reform, 6(4): 599-619.

Gowan, R. and Brandtner, F. (2008) A Global Force for Human Rights? An Audit of European power at the UN, London, European Council on Foreign Relations

Gstöhl, S. (2012) ‘EU Multilateral Diplomacy after Lisbon: More Single European Voice in the United Nations?’, in D. Mahncke and S. Gstöhl (eds) The European Union Diplomacy , Brussels, Peter Lang.

Fassbender, B. (2004) ‘The Better Peoples of the United Nations? Europe’s Practice and the United Nations’, The European Journal of International Law, 15(5): 857–84.

Frid, R. (1993) ‘The European Economic Community-A Member of a Specialized Agency of the United Nations’, European Journal of International Law, 4: 239–55.

European Commission (2003) The European Union and the United Nations: the Choice of Multilateralism, COM (2003) 526 final, 10 September.

European Union (2004) The Enlarged European Union at the United Nations: Making Multilateralism Matter, Luxembourg.

European Council (2008) Report on the Implementation of the European Security Strategy – Providing Security in a Changing World, Brussels, 11 December.

European Council (2003) A Secure Europe in a Better World: European Security Strategy, Brussels, 12 December.

Farrell, M. (2006) ‘EU Representation and Coordination within the United Nations’, in K. V. Laatikainen and K. E. Smith (eds) The European Union at the United Nations. Intersecting Multilateralisms, Houndmills and New York, Palgrave Macmillan: 27-46.

Fassbender, B. (2004) ‘The Better Peoples of the United Nations? Europe’s Practice and the United Nations’, The European Journal of International Law, 15: 5, pp. 857-84.

Grevi, G. (2011) ‘From Lisbon to New York: The EU at the UN General Assembly’, Policy Brief No 81, Madrid: FRIDE, June.

De Haro, S. (2012) ‘Participation of the European Union in the Work of the United Nations: General Assembly Resolution 65/276’, CLEER Working Papers 2012/4, Den Haag: Centre for the Law of EU External Relations.

Hill, C. (2005) ‘The European Dimension of the Debate on UN Security Council Membership’, The International Spectator, pp. 31-9.

Johansson-Nogués, E. (2004) ‘The Fifteen and the Accession States in the Un General Assembly: What Future for European Foreign Policy in the Coming Together of the “Old” and the “New” Europe?’, European Foreign Affairs Review, 9:1.

Laatikainen, K.V. and Smith, K.E. (eds) (2006) The European Union at the United Nations: Intersecting Multilateralisms, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Laatikainen, K. V. and K. E. Smith (eds.) (2006) The European Union at the United Nations. Intersecting Multilateralisms (Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan).

Laatikainen, K.V. and Palous M.(2011) ‘Contested Ground: The Effort of the European Union to Enhance its Status in the UN General Assembly’, Paper presented at the 2011 ISA Annual Convention, Montreal (Canada), 16-19 March.

Missiroli, A. (2005) ‘The UN Security Council Needs Fewer European and More Europe’, The International Spectator, 40: 4, pp. 41-7.

Ortega, M. (ed.) (2005) ‘The European Union and the United Nations – Partners in Effective Multilateralism’, Chaillot Paper 78(Paris: European Union Institute for Security Studies).

Panke, D. (2014) ‘The European Union in the United Nations: an effective external actor?, Journal of European Public Policy21(7): 1050–1066.

Rasch, M. B. (2008) The European Union at the United Nations: the Functioning and Coherence of EU External Representation in a State-centric Environment, Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

Smith, K.E. (2010) ‘The European Union at the Human Rights Council: speaking with one voice but having little influence’, Journal of European Public Policy 17(2): 224–41.

Smith, K. (2013) ‘The European Union and the Politics of Legitimization at the United Nations’, European Foreign Affairs Review18(1): 63-80.

Tsakaloyannis, P. and D. Bourantonis (1997) ‘The European Union’s Common Foreign and Security Policy and the Reform of the Security Council’, European Foreign Affairs Review, 2:2, pp. 197-209.

United Nations General Assembly (2010) ‘A/64/PV.122. Strengthening of the United Nations system’, available at

United Nations General Assembly (2011) ‘A/65/PV.88. Strengthening of the United Nations system’, available at

United Nations General Assembly (2010) ‘A/64/L.67.Participation of the European Union in the work of the United Nations’ available at .

United Nations General Assembly (2010) ‘A/65/L.64/Rev.1.Participation of the European Union in the work of the United Nations’ available at

United Nations General Assembly (2011) ‘A/RES/65/276.Participation of the European Union in the work of the United Nations’ available at


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